Native to Austria and the Balkans, the subspecies pinus nigra nigricans austriaca has been introduced to a large part of Europe and the U.S. It's a tree species cultivated for production.
This resistant, resinous species produces wood with good mechanical properties. It is particularly used for timber. As a species, it tolerates a variety of soil and helps reforest mountainous terrains. It's also an alternative species to spruce, which had been widely planted in eastern France and fell victim to a bark beetle epidemic. We'll use it in our reforestation of the Montplonne forest in France.
The black pine is a nomadic, post-pioneer species, meaning that it is photophilic (it needs a lot of light) and appears in plant successions after pioneer species. Being nomadic means that it can, under certain conditions, play a role as a pioneer species.
However, the seedlings of this light-loving species can tolerate some shade. The black pine is resistant to cold, drought (both air and soil), and wind and air pollution.
It can handle calcareous (and/or magnesian), marly, dry soil and compact clays. It has a strong root system, even in superficial soils.
It is well-suited to pubescent oak forests and thermophilic beech forests. It could be introduced into a holm oak plot, but it would be susceptible to processionary caterpillars.
It's commonly used for the reforestation of calcareous wastelands in the hilly north-east of France. As a pioneer species, black pines have been used extensively for the restoration of mountainous terrain, especially in the Southern Alps in downy oak, Scots pine, and beech tree plots.
Black pine has a resinous wood used to make products with good mechanical properties. It can be used for lumber and sawing. It is a good wood for pulp production. It is a knotty wood, but good silviculture can help reduce the amount.
The name of the pine comes from the Celtic "pen," which means "the head, the top, the point." This tree symbolises an awakening, the consciousness of being. In the Far East, the pine is also a symbol of immortality.